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Featured Fiber Optic Transceivers
● Fiber Optic Transceiver, also known as Optical Transceiver or Optical Module. It is a small packaged device that uses fiber optic technology to transmit and receive data.
● ‘Transceiver’ combines two words, “transmitter’ and ‘receiver’. In other words, the optical transceiver comprises an optical transmitter and an optical receiver. That are combined and share common circuitry or a single housing.
● It is the core device for connecting communication equipment with optical fibers. The optical module usually comprises Transmitter Optical Subassembly (TOSA, containing a laser LD Chip), Receiver Optical Subassembly (ROSA, containing a photodetector PD Chip), a driving circuit, and an optical and electrical interface. Its schematic is shown in Figure 1.
● Fiber Optic Transceivers can be classified in many ways, such as according to packaging types(Form factor), transmission rate,optical interface working mode, working temperature range, whether to support WDM applications, etc. The specific classification is shown in the following table.
|By form factor||SFP, SFP+, SFP28, QSFP28, CFP2, QSFP-DD, OSFP, etc.|
|By transmission rate||10Gb/s, 25Gb/s, 40Gb/s, 50Gb/s, 100Gb/s, 200Gb/s, 400Gb/s, 800Gb/s, etc.|
|By working module of ptical interface||Duplex, BiDi|
|By operating temperature range||Commercial grade (0~70°C), industrial grade (-40~85°C), etc|
|Whether wavelength division WDM is supported||Gray light module(WDM not supported),color optical module (WDM supported)|
● From GBIC packaging to QSFP, QSFP-DD packaging, the rate of optical modules has increased from 100Mbits to 800Gbps, and the improvement of packaging technology has enabled optical modules to adapt to higher rate requirements with little volume change.
● The colored optical module adopts WDM technology, which combines optical signals of different wavelengths on one optical fiber for transmission, significantly improving the link’s signal transmission bandwidth. At present, the colored module is mainly divided into CWDM, LWDM, MWDM, and DWDM.
|Main types of color optical modules||Channel interval||Scheme||Cost||Major commercial area|
|LWDM||800GHz||cooled DML+PIN||medium||Japan and South Korea|
|DWDM||100GHz||cooled EML+APD||high||North America,Japan, and South Korea|
|MWDM||CWDM wavelength ±3.5nm||cooled DML+PIN||medium||China|
● Fiber Optic Transceivers are mainly used in telecommunications and data centers. In the field of telecommunications, it is mainly used in wireless front, middle, and backhaul, backbone transmission, FTTX, etc.
In the area of data centers, it is often used in the internal data transmission of the primary data centers and the interconnection among data centers. And also used in wired networking applications such as Ethernet, Fibre Channel, SONET/SDH/ONT, CPRI, FTTx, and InfiniBand. The platform includes Ethernet switches, routers, firewalls, network interface cards, and fiber media converters.
● Data Rate: the number of bits transmitted per second. 1.25G/10G/25G/40G/100G/200G/400G/800G
● Central wavelength: central wavelength represents the wave band used for optical signal transmission. Currently, there are mainly three central wavelengths for standard fiber transceiver modules: 850 nm, 1310 nm, and 1550 nm, respectively, representing three wavebands.
● Transmission distance: the maximum distance over which optical signals can transmit.
● Connector Type: The interface on an optic transceiver to accommodate a fiber. The Commonly used connector types are LC connector (applicable to QSFP, SFP, SFP+, SFF, and XFP transceivers), SC connector (applicable to BIDI SFP, GBIC, X2, XENPAK,1×9 transceivers), ST and FC connector (applicable to1x9 transceivers) , MPO connector (applicable to QSFP+ SR4, and CXP modules).
● Fiber mode: Mode of optical fibers defined based on core diameters and features of optical fibers. Optical fibers are classified into single-mode (SMF) and multi-mode fibers (MMF). The multi-mode fibers have large core diameters and can transport light in multiple modes. However, the inter-mode dispersion is greater so they are used to transmit optical signals over short distances. Single-mode fibers (SMF) have a small core size and can transmit light in only one mode with a small dispersion, so they can transmit optical signals for long-reach communication distances.
● Optical Transmit power: Output optical power of an optic transceiver when it works properly. When two optical transceivers are connected, the transmit optical power of one end must be within the range of received optical power on the other end.
● Receiving sensitivity: the power at which the receiver of a fiber optic transceiver can receive optical signals within a range of bit error rate (BER = 10-12), in dBm.
● Extinction ratio: the Minimum ratio of the average optical power with signals transmitted against the average optical power without signals transmitted in complete modulation mode. The extinction ratio indicates the capability of an optical module to identify signal 0 and signal 1. This parameter is a quality indicator for fiber optic transceivers.
Q: How to clean optical transceivers?
● A dirty transceiver optical interface will lower the power and degrade the optical signal. So cleaning the transceiver is crucial. For the field engineer, use the fiber optical cleaner tool per the below steps.
● Check the transceiver connector end face using an end face checker.
● Use the one-click fiber cleaner and insert it into the transmitter side.
● Click the button to vibrate quickly to remove dirt from the end face.
Q: Can I use Single mode with a Multimode transceiver?
● You can not. Because The single-mode transceiver usually uses a 1310nm or 1550nm laser, whereas the multimode module typically uses an 850nm laser. The generic transceiver can not work with different wavelengths.
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